ISRAEL-PALESTINE



 An OVERVIEW  

Palestine is a small region of land—roughly 2,400 square miles—that has played a prominent role in the ancient and modern history of the Middle East.

In 1947, the United Nations proposed a planned partition of Palestine into two sections: 

An independent Jewish state and an independent Arab state, with Jerusalem as an internationalized territory.

Initially in May 1948, after the Partition of Palestine, Britain withdrew from Palestine and Israel became an independent state.

Estimates suggest between 700,000 and 900,000 Palestinians fled or forced to leave their homes.

Immediately, war broke out between Jews and Arabs in the region.

The 1948 Arab-Israeli War involved Israel and five Arab nations—Jordan, Iraq, Syria, Egypt and Lebanon.

The Israel – Palestine Conflict starts with OTTOMAN EMPIRE (1516-1917).

(The Ottoman Empire also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or simply Turkey, It was a state that controlled much of southeastern Europe, western Asia and northern Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. Ottoman Empire was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt (modern-day Bilecik Province) by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader OsmanAfter 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman Beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror.)

Ottoman Empire ruled Jerusalem and much of Middle East.ISRAEL-PALESTINE

After, World War 1 (28 July 1914 – 11 November 1918)  Great Britain took over the Jerusalem, which was the part of Palestine at that time.

The British rulers ruled the city and the rest other parts of the region until the Balfour Declaration & Israel’s Independence.

Jerusalem divided into 20 parts before the existence of Israel.

After Israel’s independence in 1948, the control of western Jerusalem given to Israel and the eastern part ruled by Jordan.

 THE PLO IS BORN  

In 1964, the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) was formed.

And PLO tried to create a platform for establishing a Palestinian state within Israel.

The PLO emerged as a response to Zionism (is the national movement of the Jewish people that supports the re-establishment of a Jewish homeland) an organized movement to establish a Jewish homeland in Israel.

In the years after its inception, the PLO became associated with extremism and violence.

During 1969, the well-known Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat became the Chairman of the PLO and held the title until he died in 2004.

 SIX DAYS WAR 

The Six days war is also known as the June War. In 1967 the Arab-Israeli War or Third Arab-Israeli War.

This war was fought between Israel and Egypt(Known at that time as the United Arab Republic), Syria & Jordan together, against Israel.

This six days of war resulted in a great victory for Israel in its neighboring Arab countries.

Israel took over the control of eastern Jerusalem as well. And whole Palestine almost vanished from the map.

Israel captured whole Golan Heights from Syria.

Gaza and the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt and West Bank from Jordan.

 1973 YOM KIPPUR WAR 

Yom Kippur is the holiest festival of Jews just like Diwali of Hindus and Eid of Muslims.

And this war took place on the day of this festival( YOM KIPPUR WAR).

Egypt and Syria wanted to regain their territories from Israel.

So, they once again, attack Israel. Initially, Israel suffers losses but soon it repealed the war.

Israel - Palestine Conflict
When the ceasefire came into effect, Israel had lost territory on the east side of the Suez Canal to Egypt–, but gained territory west of the canal and in the Golan Heights–.

Again, Israel defeated Egypt. For the reason that Egypt wanted an opportunity to establish peace between Egypt and Israel.

 In 1974 the first of two Egyptian-Israeli disengagement agreements, the return of portions of the Sinai to Egypt was signed.

Anwar Sadat president of Egypt and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin (1913-92) signed the first peace agreement between Israel and Egypt in 1979.

In 1982 Israel fulfilled the 1979 peace treaty by returning the last segment of the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt.

In return, Egypt gave recognition to “The State of Israel”.

And Egypt became the first Arab country to recognize Israel as an independent country.

For Syria, the Yom Kippur War was a disaster.

Israel seized most of all territory in the Golan Heights.

In 1979, Syria voted with other Arab states to expel Egypt from the Arab League.

 THE FIRST INTIFADA(The Uprising) AND THE OSLO ACCORDS 

In 1987, the First Intifada broke out between Israel – Palestine Conflict. 

Israeli occupation of Gaza and the West Bank fueled the Israel – Palestine Conflict.

Palestinian militia groups revolted, and hundreds of people were killed.

Subsequently, a peace process, known as the Oslo Peace Accords, proposed to end the ongoing violence.

The first Oslo Accord (Oslo I) created a timetable for the Middle East.

The peace process and a plan for an interim Palestinian government in parts of Gaza and the West Bank.

The agreement was signed in 1993 by Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat, In the presence of the contemporary president of US Bill Clinton.

Israel - Palestine Conflict
Bill Clinton_Yitzhak Rabin in the right of Clinton_Yasser Arafat in the left of Clinton_at_the_White_House_

 THE SECOND INTIFADA 

In September 2000, the Second Palestinian Intifada began.

One of the triggers for the violence when Ariel Sharon, later become Israel’s Prime Minister visited al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem.

Many Palestinians felt this was an offensive move, and they protested.

Riots, suicide bombings, and other attacks broke out, putting an end to the promising peace process.

This period of violence between Israel – Palestine Conflict lasted nearly five years.

In 2005, the Israeli army withdrew from Gaza.

 HAMAS 

Hamas, a Sunni Islamist militant group, won the Palestinian legislative elections in 2006. In the same year, fighting between Hamas and Fatah, the political group that controlled the PLO, ensued. 

It defeated Fatah in a battle for Gaza in 2007. Many countries consider Hamas to be a terrorist organization.

The group has carried out suicide bombings and repeatedly called for the destruction of Israel.

 PRESENT SITUATION 

Palestinians consequently fighting for an official statement formally recognized by all countries.

Palestinians occupy key areas of land, almost all the West Bank and the Gaza strip. However, large populations of Israelis continue to settle in these locations.

These settlements considered illegal by many international rights groups.

The status of  Jerusalem is one of the most intractable issues in the Israel – Palestine conflict.

Both of them claiming it as their capital.

On 21st December 2017, The UN General Assembly US President Donald Trump voted to favor Jerusalem as Israel’s capital.

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