Sudan Civil War and Refugee Crisis

 Sudan Civil War & Refugee Crisis 

I think the war and the refugee crisis are two faces of the of the same coin.
What about your opinion? Isn’t it like that?

During my research and studies on these topics like war and refugee crisis.

I found there are so many countries on war and in consequence Millions of people are forced to live in refugee camps and innumerable have died.

Just like, Syria civil war and refugee crisis there is Sudan civil war and refugee crisis.

And atrociously the most powerful organization UN (United Nations) including most powerful country USA (United States of America) are failed to solve or they are least bothered about these major issues.

It’s been years and years of these civil wars in Sudan.

 SUDAN 

World’s newest country Sudan is going through the city and refugee crisis.

Flag of Sudan

The country Sudan got an independence in 2011 and that is the reason we call it world’s newest or the youngest country.

 LOCATION 

The Republic of Sudan is a country in north Africa sharing its border with Egypt to the north.

Sudan Civil War and Refugee Crisis
Map Of Sudan

The Red Sea, Eritrea, and Ethiopia to the east, South Sudan to the south.

The Central African Republic to the southwest, Chad to the west and Libya to the northwest.

It is the third largest country in Africa covering 1,886,068 square kilometers (728,215 sq mi).

The White Nile flows through the country, emptying into Lake Nubia in the north, the largest manmade lake in the world.

The River Nile divides the country into eastern and western halves.

Before the Sudanese Civil War, South Sudan was part of Sudan, but it became independent in 2011.

 ETYMOLOGY 

Sudan is a name given to a geographical region to the south of the Sahara, stretching from Western Africa to eastern Central Africa.

The name derives from the Arabic bilād as-sūdān or “The Lands of The Blacks”.

 SUDAN RULED BY BRITISHERS & EGYPTIANS 

Anglo-Egyptian Condominium, the joint British and Egyptian government that ruled eastern Sudan to northern Africa from 1899 to 1955.

With some modifications, it lasted until the formation of the sovereign, independent Republic of Sudan on January 1, 1956.

But in practice, the structure of the condominium ensured full British control over Sudan.

 THE 1956 SUDAN INDEPENDENCE 

On 1st January 1956, Sudan gained independence from the Anglo-Egyptian Condominium. The joint British and Egyptian government that administered Sudan.

19th December 1955, the Sudanese parliament, under Azhari’s leadership, unanimously adopted a declaration of independence that became effective on January 1, 1956.

Ismail al-Azahri

 

The new country was hosting about 600 ethnic groups speaking over 400 languages.

It attained independence as the Republic of Sudan, which since 2011 has been split into Sudan and South Sudan.

The north was Sudan predominantly Muslim, while the southern regions are mostly Christian and animist.

The Arab-led government of Sudan or GOS (Government of Sudan), in the capital Khartoum, denied the promises to southerners to create a federal system.

And it led to the insurgency by southern army officers that launched the first of Sudan’s two north-south civil wars.

The Sudanese constitution(1956) did not address the religious issue which could ignite the conflict i.e. whether Sudan should be a secular or Islamist state.

From 1930 to 1953 the Anglo-Egyptian Condominium governed northern and southern Sudan separately.

 THE FIRST CIVIL WAR (1955-1972) 

The First Sudanese Civil War is also known as the Anyanya Rebellion or Anyanya I, after the name of the rebels, a term in the Madi (Central Sudanic language found in Uganda and South Sudan)  language which means ‘snake venom’.

(The Anyanya (also Anya-Nya) was a southern Sudanese separatist rebel army formed during the First Sudanese Civil War (1955–1972). A separate movement that rose during the Second Sudanese Civil War was, in turn, called Anyanya II. Anyanya means “snake venom” in the Madi language.)

The first civil war was a conflict from 1955 to 1972 between the northern part of Sudan and the southern Sudan region that demanded representation and more regional autonomy.

Half a million people died over the 17 years of war, which may be divided into three stages:

 (The South Sudan Liberation Movement (SSLM) is an armed group that operates in the Upper Nile Region of South Sudan. The group’s creation was announced in November 1999 by people of the Nuer ethnicity who were in both the rebel Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) and the government-allied South Sudan Defence Forces (SSDF))

Finally, the war ended up with Addis Ababa agreement also known as the Addis Ababa accord.

It was a set of compromises within a 1972 treaty that ended the First Sudanese Civil War (1955–1972) fighting in Sudan.

Addis Ababa accords incorporated in the Constitution of Sudan.

The Agreement had the goal to address and appease concerns of the southern Sudan liberation and secession movement.  

First Sudanese Civil War grew costly in lives and resources to the northern Sudanese government and southern population.

Addis Ababa Agreement established for the Southern Sudan Autonomous Region and it gave a degree of autonomy.

 THE SECOND CIVIL WAR 1983-2005 

The second civil war exploded between north and south Sudan in 1983 under the leadership of John Garang’s Sudanese People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM).

 

Mr. John Garang

When President Gaafar Nimeiry introduced Sharia Law and broke up the Addis Ababa Agreement provisions for a referendum in Abyei.

Mr. Gaafar Nimeiry

The SPLM/A fought against GOS until 1989 and when the parties reached a peace agreement they suspended Sharia Law.

However, on 30th June 1989, a military coup led by Omar Al-Bashir overthrew the Sudanese government and disavow the peace agreement.

Mr. Omar Al-Bashir

 

We can say the second civil war was largely a continuation of the First Sudanese Civil War of 1955 to 1972.

Although the war was originated in southern Sudan, spreads to the Nuba mountains and the Blue Nile.

It lasted for 22 years and is one of the longest civil wars on record.

 THE NEW STATE BORN 

South Sudan is the world’s newest nation, in the center of Africa bordered by six countries.

It is rich in oil, but following decades of civil war, it is also one of the least developed regions on earth.

Only 15% of its citizens own a mobile phone and there very few tarmac roads in an area bigger than Spain and Portugal combined.

The Nile River, which flows through regional centers, an important transport and trade route.

Cattle are also central to life in South Sudan a person’s wealth is measured by the size of their herd.

In  December 2009  the leaders of North and South reached the deal in terms of the referendum on independence due in South by 2011.

During January 2011 the people of South Sudan voted in favor of full independence from Sudan.

In February 2011 Clashes between the security forces and rebels in southern Sudan’s Jonglei state leave more than 100 dead.

During May 2011 North Sudan occupies disputed border region of Abyei.

Governments of north and south sign accord to demilitarize the disputed Abyei region and let in an Ethiopian peacekeeping force.

The war resulted in the independence of South Sudan after it ended.

On July 9th the Independence day of Sudan was declared.

UN says at least 600 people are killed in ethnic clashes in Jonglei state.

South Sudan declares a disaster in Jonglei State after some 100,000 flee clashes between rival ethnic groups.

After weeks of border fighting, South Sudan troops temporarily occupied the oil field and border town of Heglig before being repulsed.

 THE THIRD CIVIL WAR 

In December 2013 once again the civil war exploded as President Salva Kiir accused his former vice-president, Riek Machar, for plotting to overtake his (Salva Kiir) regime.

Mr. Salva Kiir

 

Again the fight broke up between the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM) and SPLM-IO (In opposition), igniting the civil war.

Ugandan troops were deployed to fight supporting the South Sudanese government.

The war escalated because Salva Kiir (from Dinka ethnic group) and Riek Machar ( Nuer ethnic group) are the representatives of rival ethnic groups.

Deep-rooted tensions and a history of violence between the Dinka and the Nuer ethnic groups accelerated the political fight into an ethnic conflict.

The people loyal to their own communities and community heads started targeting the rival group and slaughtering each other.

To establish the peace between these two ethnic groups IGAD intervened and according to the agreement, Riek Machar must return to Juba resuming his post as the country’s vice president.

Mr. Riek Machar

(IGAD (Intergovernmental Authority on Development), the organization of African countries that includes South Sudan and most of its neighbors.)

In 2016, the two rival forces clashed once again in Juba, and Machar fled the city.

Meanwhile, Kiir kept fighting with other ethnic groups (Equatorians) as well.

In October 2015, Kiir ordered to reorganize the country’s internal boundaries, increasing the number of states from 10 to 28.

In consequence, the Equatorians, who live mainly in the southern part of the country are brutally killed.

The Kiir’s army attacks on the Equatorians without any mercy.

On a counter, Equatorians are also started taking up arms against Dinka ethnic groups.

 WHY THE WAR WON’T STOP 

The problem is that each of the IGAD countries — Djibouti, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Somalia, (north) Sudan, and Uganda — have their own interests in South Sudan.

As South Sudan is an oil-rich country. And these IGAD countries want to take advantage of it.

But these IGAD countries also want the interference of the UN (United Nations) and prohibition of arms supply to South Sudan through the UN only.

The Russia and China have their own parts of interests as both of them are top arms suppliers to South Sudan.

So, the Russians and the Chinese never want to vote to favor proscription of arms,” in the United Nations.

Russia and China want a united appeal from all Africans countries to bar the arms supply which can only stop the war in South Sudan.

But altogether these superpowers(Russia and China) and all IGAD countries are playing a dirty game of politics for their own concerns.

No, one is even bothered about those innocent civilians whose houses have been destroyed women’s are getting raped, millions of families and their houses are ruined.

 CONSEQUENCES 

Widespread ethnic cleansing, burning villages, looming starvation, bloodthirsty genocide like Rwandan genocide and gang rape now has become a normal day to day life in South Sudan.

(The Rwandan genocide, also known as the genocide against the Tutsi was a genocidal mass slaughter of Tutsi in Rwanda by members of the Hutu majority government. An estimated 500,000 to 1,000,000 Rwandans were killed during the 100-day period from 7 April to mid-July 1994.)

Approximately two million people died, famine and disease caused as the consequence of the conflict.

Over four million people in southern Sudan were displaced during the war.  

The civilian death toll is one of the highest of any war since World War II and was marked by a large number of human rights violations.

Including slavery and mass killings. And one of the biggest “Refugee Crisis”.

 THE REFUGEE CRISIS 

The Sudan refugee crisis one of the most alarming humanitarian situations in the world.

Millions of South Sudanese are fleeing from brutal violence and starvation.

Fleeing civilians are displaced within the country or are taking refuge in neighboring countries including Ethiopia, Uganda or Kenya.

In Uganda, the South Sudanese refugees have been reached to 1 million.

The present situation in Sudan is so vulnerable.

But Handicap International is particularly concerned for people who may have difficulties accessing humanitarian assistance like people with disabilities, older people and other groups with disabilities.

Majority of people are still struggling to find enough food daily.

Endless pain, sleepless nights unhealthy days and unsecured life only describe the reality and present situation of Sudanese people.

I can put a dead end to my article. But who will put an end to this war? And when it will get stopped?

When will the Sudanese civilians have their own house, joyful life, education and food for their kids, safety for their women and fresh air to breath within their own country?

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